Dec 3 2009

A Homebrewer’s Take on Cider Making

I’m not an expert on cider. I’ve been brewing beer for more than a couple of years but, in terms of cider, I might be a step above a newbie.

The good news is that there are experts out there and, just like with brewing, I find there is a direct correlation between the ones who know what they are talking about and their willingness to be remarkably helpful and patient with your questions.   In other words, if you are asking advice of an “expert” and he or she is an asshole to you, run the other way.

I’m fortunate enough to have a master cider maker in my homebrew club, and he is the inquisitive man behind this wonderful cider-making thread.  He has connections with local orchards, and has made cider with many types of apples, yeasts and sugars.

I thought I wasn’t much of a cider fan, but it turns out I just have a narrow window of what I enjoy right now in a cider.  I like there to still be a good amount of apple flavor and some lingering sweetness.  After trying my friend’s various batches, I chose the one that I wanted to have 5.5 gallons of.  My cider recipe and methodology is his.

So here is cider-making, from fresh-off-the-tree apples, from a homebrewer’s perspective:

This one started with 6 gallons of fresh apple juice from a local orchard.  The mix was 80% Stayman apples and the last 20% were a mixture of Empire and York for a little tartness.  As a side note, merely picking up the fresh squeezed juice is definitely a nice change from a 4 or 5 hour all-grain brew day. Once I got the carboy home, it was time to go to work.

The Juice - Stayman, Empire and York

The clock starts ticking once that juice is pressed.  With homebrew, you want fementation to start as soon as possible.  If it takes too long, there are unfortunate side effects that will definitely take the shine off your beer.  With cider, you’re dealing with a lot of highly fermentable juice that is full of simple sugars that are raring to go and, here’s the urgency, they are covered with wild yeast.  You can take all of the apples and carefully wash their skins before crushing them, but that yeast and bacteria is still there.  In order to have a controlled fermentation, with the yeast of your choosing, you need to pitch your yeast and get it fermenting quickly.  There will still be that wild yeast in there, but a healthy starter will safely outpace the spontaneous fermentation that would naturally occur.

The next step was to add some sweetness to the juice and to bump up the gravity a bit.  The starting gravity of the juice was 1.050, and I brought that up to a 1.065 with the addition of 24 ounces of turbinado sugar and 16 ounces of dextrose. Turbinado is an easy to find unrefined sugar, that adds a sweet complexity, which can be found at any good grocery store. Dextrose is the simply the same priming corn sugar you would use to bottle condition a beer.

Cider 2 - Turbinado

I simply poured both sugars into the carboy with some yeast nutrient, and then I stirred it up for a minute an aeration wand attached to my cordless drill.

Next up was a pitching the yeast and, despite the fact I never rehydrate the Safale US-05, I did so with this batch just to be safe.  It seems like I’ve been using this strain a lot lately, but it is the way to go for very clean and attenuated beer.  Also, it was the recommended yeast from my cider friend and my favorite of his batches.  Once the yeast was in there, I put the airlock on the carboy and let go at room temperature.

Fermentation of ciders is a very low-key event if you are a homebrewer.  There is a krausen of sorts and CO2 is bubbling out, but it is in no way the violent creation of alcohol and flavors that beer is.  At peaking fermentation, it is simply bubbling like a soft drink.  That is as calming and charming as watching goldfish swim around a tank, but I really do prefer when things blow-up (real good).

Cider Ferment

The tricky part of a cider, at least for me, is stopping the fermentation.  Ciders are so full of simple sugars that, left to their own devices, they will ferment down to bone dryness.  The first cider I ever tried to make dropped down to a 0.990.  For those not familiar with gravities, this means that enough alcohol was produced to make the cider thinner than the density of water.  It wasn’t bad, but it was a little high in alcohol and it put a hurt on your head the next morning.

There are two main ways to halt cider: K-Meta or cold crashing.  K-Meta (more properly referred to as potassium metabisulfite) will drop out your yeast and halt fermentation, but those with more sensitive palates will detect a residual taste.  Sodium metabisulfite will work interchangeably with K-Meta, although some might have minor concerns about adding sodium to the cider.

My local expert only cold-crashes, so that was my method, as well.  The sweet spot (pun intended) for me was 1.006, so every few days I would wine thief out some of the cider and test the gravity.  Once it hit 1.010, I put the carboy in the cooler and dropped it down to 32 degrees Fahrenheit. In an act of kind chance, the cider stopped fermenting at 1.008.  That was close enough for me.

I left the cider in the cooler for another week to try to clarify and drop out anything else in suspension. I bottled it soon after and let it bottle carbonate.

(There will be a picture of the cider in a glass here in the future…..)

How did it turn out? Flavor-wise, I’m very happy.  It is slightly sweet, and a nice bit of apple flavor up front.  I will have to review it on a separate blog post at some point down the road.  Despite adding sugar at bottling time, it did not carbonate much at all.  That doesn’t really bother me, but for the next batch will pitch some fresh yeast at bottling. If you have the capability, keg carbonation is probably the easiest move.

Will I do this again?  Sure.  It is amazingly easy and cheap. ($18 for 6 gallons of juice, and a few dollars more for the sugars and yeast.)  It is a nice change from the usual brewing skills I use, so I’m flexing different muscles.

In a way, cider making seems a bit more like making wine.  With homebrewing, you need fresh ingredients and mad brewing skills to make a good batch of beer.  With cider and wine, you still need great skills, but the majority of the battle is in having the best apples or grapes.  I recommend using fresh apples if you have the ability to get them.

What’s next?  Something that is affectionately being calling “Lambicide”.  A cider made with a lambic blend of sherry and wheat yeasts, as well as brett and lacto.  Here comes the sour cider……

BTW – The simple recipe:

5.5 gallons of fresh apple juice (in this case: Stayman, Empire & York)

24 ounces Turbinado

16 ounces Dextrose

1 Package of Safale US-05 (not rehydrated)

Some Wyeast Nutrient Blend (per instructions)


Nov 25 2009

More Split Batches and Falling off the Blogging Horse

I took an accidental hiatus from the blog for a while.  Yeah, I fell off the blogging horse, so I’m dusting myself off and getting back on track.

I’m still moving forward with split batches, and I’m still trying to squeeze as much learning as I can out of these brews.

Sour Saison

My sour saison split is still getting funky. That was the one that I split a saison into two 3 gallon carboys, and I pitched brettanomyces B on one, and the cultured up dregs of an Avery Brabant on the other. They are still aging and they have both dropped ~0.001 in the gravity department.  The biggest difference between the two, from my infrequent visits to them, is that the Brabant is showing the signs of having some pediococcus and lactobacillus.  Neither are particularly enjoyable to taste, but these things take time to clean up. Before it is all over, I’m sure I’ll be adding the last bits of some sour commercial beers in the brett-only saison to fill out the flavors and complexities of the beer.

I might be bottling these beers in the near future. Although they have only been souring for about 3 months, I was aiming for more of “at bottling time” addition of brett than the long souring and aging variety.

Robust Porter

The robust porter split is done and bottled, and I’ll be comparing the robust porter fermented with Safale US-05 against the same wort fermented with the Safale-04 in a future blog post. I’ve tried them side-by-side once and there were slight, but obvious, differences. I’m not sure what I was expecting to find with this split, and I think I’m still better off not having expectations until after the last taste.

Belgian Dark Strong Ale

The next split was my Belgian Dark Strong Ale which is going three ways. Six gallons of the BDSA went down in a typical fashion with lots of grain, some simple sugars delivered through cane and candi syrups, and that was all fermented down with a gallon starter of the White Labs WLP530 Abbey ale yeast.  This was a relatively small BDSA, and it weighed in only (merely!) at an 1.081 OG. After that fermented down, I bottled about a gallon of that beer and then pitched the Wyeast brettanomyces lambicus on the rest, along with pinot noir & French oak. 

The third part of this brew was a gallon that BDSA wort that was fermented with Safale US-05 yeast (a clean, American strain).  What exactly is the style of a beer that has the malt and sugar bill of a Belgian Dark Strong ale, but is done with a California yeast?  A dry and malty Old Ale? I don’t know.  We shall see.


The latest split brew is a Mild, and I will probably bottle that this week.  This is a low-alcohol session ale that weighed in at 1.038 OG, and it  finished at 1.009 (and rockin’ 3.8% ABV).  I’m really happy with how this one tastes so far. It is as close to a worty, grain flavor as I’ve ever gotten out of one of my homebrews without being cloyingly sweet, as well.  The other part of the split was the same exact beer and yeast (Danstar Nottingham), but I threw in some French oak when I pitched the yeast on the second portion of the mild. I’m only leaving the wooded mild on those oak cubes for two weeks, and I will be bottling that one, too, this week.

Sour Cider

The last atypical brew that I have in motion isn’t a beer at all. It is a cider. Now, I made a cider a month or so ago under the tutelage of a fellow homebrew club member who is the cider master.  That turned out great, but I am making another batch of cider with the questionable idea of fermenting it with the Wyeast 3278 Lambic Blend. I had a plan to go brett-only, but it takes time for the brett to take off and this is fresh juice (off the tree, into the press, and into the carboy) with lots of wild and unpredictable yeast on the skins and in the press.  This mixture of two brettanomyces, a Belgian wheat, and a sherry yeast strain, as well as a lactic acid bacteria, will hopefully beat out the unknown critters.  I picked up the fresh juice last night (which was 50% Staymens, and 50% Pink Ladys) and I added the sodium metabusulfite to hold the natural yeasts at bay for a time.

A friend, in a moment of genius, has called this… thing “Lambicide”.  I don’t know how that name CAN’T stick.

The Battle of the Bocks

A few weeks from now, I have an epic brew day scheduled. My friend Greg and I are planning to do two 12 gallons batches at the same time. One will be a Doppelbock, the other an Eisbock.  At the end of the day, we should both go home with 6 gallons of each beer. No experiments or splits are planning for this. That 24 gallons should be enough.

Details of the above beers and ciders will follow….